Arunachal Pradesh India
Capital : Itanagar
Area : 83,743sq km
Density of population : 10 per sq km (lowest in India)
Growth of population : 24.20%
Administrative language : English
Languages : Apatani, Monpa, Miji, Hilmari, Hindi and Bengali
Birth rate : 23.8 per 1000
Mortality rate : 6 per 1000
Literacy rate : 41.59%
Religion : Tribals and Animists: 38.26%, Hindus 37.04%,
Buddhists 12.88%, Christians 10.29%, Muslims 1.38%, Jains: 0.01%,
at the farthest point in the northeastern part of India, Arunachal
Pradesh occupies a strategic position amongst the northeastern hill
states of the country. Known as the Land of the Down-lit Mountains, it
shares its borders with Bhutan in the west, China in the north and
northeast, and Myanmar (former Burma) in the east and southeast. Assam
lies to its south. A sparsely populated state, it does not have
railway links with the rest of the country. However, air services
connect mainland India to some of the important towns in this state.
In terms of area, it is the largest state in the northeast of India.
¤ Tribal Population
Arunachal Pradesh is mainly a tribal society. The tribes make up for
nearly 64% of the total population of the state. The tribal population
is primarily of the Mongoloid and Tibeto-Burmese stock.
Some of the more important tribes are the Apatanis, the Khamptis, the
Padmas and the Miris. Tribal customs bind the tribesmen together into
a solid community. Festivals play a big role in their lives. The more
important ones are Losar, Khan, Mopin and Mol that are marked by
merrymaking and processions, and have all and sundry joining in the
Though Arunachal Pradesh had been inhabited since the dawn of Indian
civilisation, our knowledge of its ancient political, social and
cultural history still begs the question. There are fleeting
references to the area in the Puranas (sacred Hindu texts). However,
it is only in the 16th century that its history gained in
coherence from legend and tradition. At that time, it came under the
rule of the Ahom rulers of Assam. The year 1838 saw the establishment
of British dominion over the area. Before the Indian independence, the
state was known as the North East Frontier Agency (NEFA). Later, in
post-independent India, it was made a Union Territory. In 1971, the
name NEFA was changed to Arunachal Pradesh. By the State of Arunachal
Pradesh Act, 1986, it was elevated from the status of a Union
Territory to that of the 24th state of the Indian Union.
¤ Agriculture and Industries
Being a tribal society,of India Arunachal Pradesh is a rural economy.
88% of the state’s population lives in the rural areas.
Agriculture is the mainstay of the people. Apart from rice that is the
staple crop of the state, maize, pulses, millets, potatoes, oilseeds
and sugarcane are also grown. The physical features of Arunachal
Pradesh are very conducive to shifting cultivation. The state offers
great potential for tourism besides industrial development as it has
far-flung forests, hydroelectric resources and huge deposits of
minerals. Apart from Tirap, Upper Subansiri and Dibang Valley are rich
in coal deposits. The Namchik-namphak mines in the Tirap district have
geologically proven reserves of nearly 90 million tonnes. The pretty
little town of Rupa in the West Kameng district is rich in dolomite
mines. of late, cottage industry in the state has witnessed a
remarkable growth. Weaving is the main handicraft of the state.
¤ A Desired Tourist Destinatioin
Arunachal Pradesh is endowed with great scenic beauty and has immense
potential for tourism. Amongst the places in the state that are of
interest to tourists, Bomdila, and the Tawang monastery immediately
come to one’s mind. Itanagar, the capital of the state, is also
an important tourist destination. Malinithan in West Siang district
and Bismaknagar in Dibang Valley are significant archeological sites.
Namdapha National Park in Changlang is quite a draw for wild life