Information of Haryana Land
¤ The Hills
The Shivaliks, the lowest of the Himalayan range, cradle Haryana in
the north. The Aravalli hills, cutting through Rajasthan, make an
appearance in the south towards Delhi. These small hills claim to be
famous as the Alwar and Ajaibarg series. The hills are mainly of the
low lying kinds, ensuring that temperatures dont drop to right
inside the bone in winter.
¤ The Plains
The most characteristic feature of Haryana is its alluvium plains
made up of sand, clay, silt and hard calcareous balls like gravel the
size of nuts known locally as kankar. Towards the south the plains are
dotted with piled up sand, which can run for miles at a stretch and
are called sand dunes! Although a fertile land, the sand covered
alluvium in southern areas makes it a trifle difficult for the farmers
to utilise these plains to grow crops, and labouring in the sweltering
Indian summer heat can be more than a trifle difficult.
¤ The Rivers
No major river runs through Haryana, what with the Yamuna just
missing its outer boundary and choosing to meander through Delhi.
However, an elaborate network of rivulets and canals feed the crops
and the human population. Normally dry in summer the rivulets wreak
havoc when the monsoons are in full swing, washing away crops but at
the same time leaving a soil rich in silt in their wake. The major
Rising up in the outer Himalayas between the Yamuna and the Sutlej,
the Ghaggar enters Haryana near Panjore (Pinjore) as a raging torrent.
Passing through Ambala and Hissar before reaching Bikaner in
Rajasthan, it runs a course of 290 miles before finally disintegrating
in the deserts of Rajasthan.
One of the greatest rivers of ancient India (mentioned in the Rig
Veda as a `river par excellence), today it has been relegated to
being just a rivulet. With no defined course, it finds its way through
hilly regions. In ancient times, Saraswati was the principal Vedic
rivers, and numerous religious ceremonies and rituals were performed
on its banks. It eventually flows into the Ghaggar and dries up near
Bhatner in Rajasthan.
Markandas ancient name was Aruna. A seasonal stream like the
Ghaggar, it originates from the lower Shivalik hills and enters
Haryana near Ambala. During monsoons, this stream swells up into a
raging torrent notorious for its devastating power. The surplus water
is carried on to the Sanisa lake where the Markanda joins the
Saraswati. An important tributary is the Tangri.
The Sahibi originates in the Mewat hills near Jitgarh and Manoharpur
in Rajasthan. Gathering volume from about a hundred tributaries, it
reaches voluminous proportions, forming a broad stream around Alwar
and Patan. On reaching Rohtak it branches off into two smaller
streams, finally passing reaching the outskirts of Delhi and flowing
into the Yamuna.
There are three other rivulets in and around the Mewat hills
Indori, Dohan and Kasavati, and they all flow northwards from the
Legend has it that the Saraswati flows till Allahabad in Uttar
Pradesh as a massive underground river, culminating in a grand finale
when it meets the Ganga and the Yamuna at Sangam, one of the holiest
place in Hindu mythology.
At Sangam, the Ganga and the Yamuna meet each other in the centre,
each river flowing into each other from two different directions! The
confluence of the two (or three, if you may) rivers is a turbulent
patch of churning waters in the middle, where Hindus immerse the ashes
of their dead as a final salvation from this mortal world.
In the times of the Vedas, the region encompassed by the rivers
Saraswati and Drishadwati was named Brahmavarta by the sagely
astrologer Manu (also said to be the first man on Earth).
The first lot of Aryans from the west took a fancy to Brahmavarta and
settled down here, spreading peace and prosperity all around. Because
of this amazing ability to infuse harmony to the inhabitants of its
banks, the Saraswati came to be known as `the life and soul of
¤ The Climate
Over 500kms north of the Tropic of Cancer, Haryana has a semi-arid as
well as a tropical climate.
Being far away from the coasts and close to the Thar desert, it does
not get the full share of the monsoon current seen mostly across
central and east India.
The maximum rain hit area is Ambala with 47.16 inches per annum, but
rainfall is sporadic in other areas. May and June can be really hot
with the temperatures soaring to over 48°C, while in winter it
can be as low as 14°C.
¤ Flora & Fauna
At one time Haryana was a forest covered land, but today only about
3.5 per cent of the total area is remains so.
A thorny dry deciduous forest, pine and thorny shrubs can be found
all over the state. Chief trees are mulberry, eucalyptus, pine, kikar,
sheesham and babul, and during the monsoon a carpet of grass covers
the hills which makes them excellent grazing ground for black buck and
nilgai (blue bull). A lone tiger or panther can be spotted on
occasion, while foxes, mongooses, jackals and wild dogs are aplenty.