Information of Orissa Land
Orissa - a coastal state is located on
the eastern coast of India extended to an area of 155,707SqKm. The
region is restricted by Madhya Pradesh in the west, Andhra Pradesh in
the south ,West Bengal in north-east, Bay of Bengal in the east and
Bihar in the north. Orissa was carved out of its parental state- Bihar
and got the status of and independent state in 1936. Bhubaneswar- the
capital city of Orrisa is one of the most planned modern town and also
a pilgrimage center of Hindus.
The entire region faces the tropical climate as a result of which
high temperature is recorded particularly during April-May. Also being
a coastal region, the sea has a moderate influence over the climate of
the coastal belt whereas the mountain regions experience an extreme
cold climate. The rich mineral belts lie in the western and
north-western parts of the state.
¤ Geographical Features
Orissa can be divided into three broad regions 1) The Coastal plains,
(2) The Mountain Region (3) The Plateaus
¤ Coastal Plains
In the eastern cost of India the coastal plains of Orissa extends
from the Mayurbhanj in the north-east to the Malkangiri in the
south-west. The terrain of the region is narrow in the north, widest
in the middle, almost tapering in the south. This fertile region is
known as the 'rice bowl' of Orissa. The plains are fed by the pristine
water of its numerous rivers -- the Subarnarekha, the Baitarani, the
Brahmani, the Mahanadi.
¤ The Salt Tract
The salt tract is a narrow belt which stretches the shore line for
about 4 to 9km in land. The places is completely absorbed with salt
resulted into barren land. The innumerable slow and inactive waterways
makes it difficult to traverse. Amidst Mahanadi delta, this salt area
is throng with forest known as the Little Sunderbans.
¤ The Mahanadi Delta
The Mahanadi delta has formed raised platform as a result of which
sand dunes developed along the coast. These raised sand ridges brought
changes in the drainage systems. The formation of the sand dunes can
be seen between the Chilika and the Devi up to the north of Dhamra.
¤ The Coastal Line
Orissa has a coastal line of 529 Km from the marshes of Ichhapuram in
the south to the east of Subarnarekha in the north-east. The Orissa
coast has enlarged in the center of the region where the Mahanadi, the
Brahmani and the Baitarani have formed a combined delta.
¤ The Lakes, Lagoons and Marshes
The most important feature of Orissa lakes are they are sub-divided
into natural and artificial lakes. There are also lakes that have salt
content in them. The most important reservoirs are at Balimela, on the
river Sileru, Mandira over the Sankh, and Indravati in the river
Chilika Lake forms the natural reservoir and is one of the largest
lake in India also a home to numerous aerial population. Government of
Orissa has declared the lake as a bird sanctuary that makes it one of
the most important tourist destinations with its exquisite picturesque
splendor. The Sar lake, the Samagarapata and the Tampara are important
lagoons in the region.
¤ Mountain Region
has a hilly terrain, almost three-fourth of entire state is covered
with mountains. The elevated plateaus are located in the mountain
ranges with an average height of 300-600m they are also festooned with
deep river valleys.
The uplands are much lower in heights and varies between 150 and
300m. These lands are fertile lands and have much scope for
cultivation of paddy in wet areas. The Baragarh uplands of the Jira
and the Jhaun basins are the most renowned one.
¤ The Rriver Valleys
The major rivers of Orissa have formed valleys due to fluvial action.
These valleys are mostly narrow and deep in the upper reaches, wide in
the middle and broaden in the lower reaches - a gate-way to the plains
of Orissa. The Valley of the Mahanadi , The Valley of Brahmani, The
Valley of the Vamsadhara are some of the most famous river valley
formations. Six important rivers water the state -- the Subarnarekha,
the Budhabalanga, the Baitarani, the Brahmani, the Mahanadi and the
Rusikulya, covering an area of 155,707sq.km.