¤ Tribal Community in Tripura
Of all the tribal community in Tripura, the Tripuris constitute the
50% of the entire tribal population. The Tripuris mainly live on the
slopes of the hills with a number of five to fifty families in groups.
They live in houses made out of bamboo, about five to six feet raised
above the ground, to be saved from wild animals. But Tripuris have
started coming down to the plains and settling there. When they live
in the plains, they also started conforming to the ways of the people
of the plain. A typical type of scarf is famous among the Tripuri
women, called Pachra. The scarf is worn in such a manner that it
reaches below the knee. Another garment as shirt called the Risha is
made by the women out of their loin-loom.
The second largest number of tribal community in Tripura is 'the
Reang community'. The head of the community prides over the word 'Rai'
and has a say in every matter of internal disputes. Hence all the
people of the community obeys what he says, as such, Reangs are a very
disciplined community and rarely they take the dispute to the court of
justice. Most of the Reang are not educated and not economically sound
and hence they belong to the primitive group of Tripura.
Chakma community follows the principles of Buddhism and lives in
sub-divisions of Kailashahar. Amarpur, Sabroom, Udaipur, Belonia and
Kanchanpur. There are divisions of groups and sub-sections within the
community but no salient feature are distinguishable in all these
sub-sections. The chiefs or otherwise known as 'Dewans' have influence
and authority in all the internal matters of the community. The Chakma
women are also skillful in weaving. The community is also said to be
very nice and clean in their domestic life.
Malsum community is branched out of Halam which are originally one
of the Kuki tribes. Though Kuki tribes are not indigenous, the Halam
are believed to have lived in Tripura even before the Tripuris came
and conquer the land. Those of the Kuki tribe who had submitted to the
Tripura 'Raja' as subjects came to be known as Halams. Malsum belongs
to one of the twelve sub-groups of Halam community. Though the Halams
follow the 'Saka' cult, they have influence of 'Vaishnavism'
particularly in two sections of the society. They also believe in the
existence of the spirit. Sacrifices and offerings are solemnized as
their form of worship so that no calamity or natural phenomenon
happens to the community in the form of crop failure or any other
natural disaster. This community have a tradition of settling the
disputes and crimes to inflict punishment to the offender during the
festival. In this way the ritual and the Puja are a useful social
gathering to settle differences and dispute and harbor peace and
harmony in the community.
The Garo community use to live in 'Tong Ghar' made of bamboo to save
themselves from wild animals like other Tripuris. Now they are living
in houses made of mud wall and 'Chan' grass as roof. The people of
Garo community live in the south and Dhalai District of Tripura. The
head and priest of the community are known as Sangnakma and Kama
respectively. Their traditional dress also resembles the dress of the
The Lusai are settled in the Jampui Hills situated in the Northeast
boundary of the state under the Kanchanpur Sub-division in North
Tripura District. The Lusai community contributes a tiny portion of
the entire population but their social life and customs have been of
great interest to others. Their principal means of livelihood is still
The Darlong community is settled in the Kailashahar sub-division in
North Tripura and they are the sub-caste of the Lusai community. Their
means of livelihood is cultivation of pineapple, orange and cotton.
Most of the Mog community people are followers of Buddhism. The
origin of the word 'Mog' has been a controversy for it is believed to
be a Bengali word, or a Burmese word, or derived from the word
'Mogadha'which is a large empire or resembles surnames of the
inhabitants of Arakan in 15th and 16th century. The most celebrated
festival of the community is the Sangrai (last day of the Chaitra,
which is the last month of the Bengali Calendar year) celebrated with
great pomp and grandeur.